Extreme Bandgap Semiconductors

Project Personnel

Debdeep Jena

Principal Investigator

Cornell University


Huili (Grace) Xing

Cornell University


Emmanouil Kioupakis

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor


Eric Pop

Stanford University


Funding Divisions

Division of Materials Research (DMR), Electrical, Communications and Cyber Systems (ECCS)

The last two decades witnessed revolutionary advances in electronics and photonics by moving from ~1 electron Volt gap semiconductors (Silicon, Gallium Arsenide) to ~3 electron Volt Gallium Nitride and Silicon Carbide. This enabled energy-efficient light emitting diodes as replacement of incandescent bulbs, high-voltage transistors that are cutting down wasted energy in electrical devices and machinery, and significantly expanded our fundamental knowledge of the materials science of semiconductors. Similar major advances are expected by aiming at extreme-bandgap semiconductors with energy gaps almost twice of that of the wide-bandgap semiconductors. In addition to the new science, such materials should enable advances in healthcare and monitoring by creating deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and lasers, and by significantly improving the efficiency and capability of semiconductors for electrical power conversion. The proposed project will result in the training of graduate students in a fascinating emerging field of extreme bandgap semiconductor material science, with their many fundamental electronic, optical, and thermoelectric properties. In addition to expanding existing outreach programs, new activities with a special focus on high-school students and underrepresented groups via Research Experiences for Teachers programs and direct visits for in-class demonstrations are proposed. That the team is distributed between Cornell, Michigan, and Stanford with complementary expertise will be exploited by regular exchange of graduate students for experiments, as well as theory and modeling work, to foster a truly collaborative mindset in the project. The dissemination of research by journal publications, presentations at conferences, its inclusion in courses taught by the invsetigators, and online (e.g. nanoHub) will make possible the outreach of the research results to the widest possible audience.


Epitaxial ScxAl1−xN on GaN exhibits attractive high-K dielectric properties
J. Casamento, H. Lee, T. Maeda, V. Gund, K. Nomoto, L. van Deurzen, W. Turner, P. Fay, S. Mu, C. G. Van de Walle, A. Lal, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena
Momentum-resolved electronic structure and band offsets in an epitaxial NbN/GaN superconductor/semiconductor heterojunction
T. Yu, J. Wright, G. Khalsa, B. Pamuk, C. S. Chang, Y. Matveyev, X. Wang, T. Schmitt, D. Feng, D. A. Muller, H. G. Xing, D. Jena, and V. N. Strocov
Strong effect of scandium source purity on chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial ScxAl1xN/GaN heterostructures
J. Casamento, H. Lee, C. S. Chang, M. F. Besser, T. Maeda, D. A. Muller, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena
Toward the predictive discovery of ambipolarly dopable ultra-wide-band-gap semiconductors: The case of rutile GeO2
S. Chae, K. Mengle, K. Bushick, J. Lee, N. Sanders, Z. Deng, Z. Mi, P. F. P. Poudeu, H. Paik, J. T. Heron, and E. Kioupakis
Electric Fields and Surface Fermi Level in Undoped GaN/AlN Two‐Dimensional Hole Gas Heterostructures
Ł. Janicki, R. Chaudhuri, S. J. Bader, H. G. Xing, D. Jena, and R. Kudrawiec
N-polar GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diodes
Y. Cho, J. Encomendero, S. Ho, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena
Prospects for Wide Bandgap and Ultrawide Bandgap CMOS Devices
S. J. Bader, H. Lee, R. Chaudhuri, S. Huang, A. Hickman, A. Molnar, H. G. Xing, D. Jena, H. W. Then, N. Chowdhury, and T. Palacios
Bottom tunnel junction blue light-emitting field-effect transistors
S. Bharadwaj, K. Lee, K. Nomoto, A. Hickman, L. van Deurzen, V. Protasenko, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena
Near-ideal reverse leakage current and practical maximum electric field in β-Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diodes
W. Li, D. Saraswat, Y. Long, K. Nomoto, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing
Optical properties of cubic boron arsenide
B. Song, K. Chen, K. Bushick, K. A. Mengle, F. Tian, G. A. G. U. Gamage, Z. Ren, E. Kioupakis, and G. Chen
Fighting Broken Symmetry with Doping: Toward Polar Resonant Tunneling Diodes with Symmetric Characteristics
J. Encomendero, V. Protasenko, F. Rana, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing
Multiferroic LuFeO3 on GaN by molecular-beam epitaxy
J. Casamento, M. E. Holtz, H. Paik, P. Dang, R. Steinhardt, H. (. Xing, D. G. Schlom, and D. Jena
Monolithically p-down nitride laser diodes and LEDs obtained by MBE using buried tunnel junction design
H. Turski, S. Bharadwaj, M. Siekacz, G. Muziol, M. Chlipala, M. Zak, M. Hajdel, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, S. Stanczyk, H. Xing, D. Jena, and C. Skierbiszewski
Enhanced injection efficiency and light output in bottom tunnel-junction light-emitting diodes
S. Bharadwaj, J. Miller, K. Lee, J. Lederman, M. Siekacz, H. (. Xing, D. Jena, C. Skierbiszewski, and H. Turski
Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Large‐Area GaN/AlN 2D Hole Gas Heterostructures
R. Chaudhuri, S. J. Bader, Z. Chen, D. Muller, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena
GaN/AlN p-channel HFETs with Imax > 420 mA/mm and Similar to 20 GHz fT/fMAX in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM)
Nitride LEDs and Lasers with Buried Tunnel Junctions
H. Turski, M. Siekacz, G. Muzioł, M. Hajdel, S. Stańczyk, M. Żak, M. Chlipała, C. Skierbiszewski, S. Bharadwaj, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena
Thermal conductivity of crystalline AlN and the influence of atomic-scale defects
R. L. Xu, M. Muñoz Rojo, S. M. Islam, A. Sood, B. Vareskic, A. Katre, N. Mingo, K. E. Goodson, H. G. Xing, D. Jena, and E. Pop
A polarization-induced 2D hole gas in undoped gallium nitride quantum wells
R. Chaudhuri, S. J. Bader, Z. Chen, D. A. Muller, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena
Hole mobility of strained GaN from first principles
S. Poncé, D. Jena, and F. Giustino
Unusual step meandering due to Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier in GaN epitaxy on the N-polar surface
H. Turski, F. Krzyżewski, A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, P. Wolny, M. Siekacz, G. Muziol, C. Cheze, K. Nowakowski-Szukudlarek, H. (. Xing, D. Jena, M. Załuska-Kotur, and C. Skierbiszewski
Wurtzite phonons and the mobility of a GaN/AlN 2D hole gas
S. J. Bader, R. Chaudhuri, M. F. Schubert, H. W. Then, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena
Rotationally aligned hexagonal boron nitride on sapphire by high-temperature molecular beam epitaxy
R. Page, J. Casamento, Y. Cho, S. Rouvimov, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena
Blue (In,Ga)N light-emitting diodes with buried n +p + tunnel junctions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
Y. Cho, S. Bharadwaj, Z. Hu, K. Nomoto, U. Jahn, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena
The new nitrides: layered, ferroelectric, magnetic, metallic and superconducting nitrides to boost the GaN photonics and electronics eco-system
D. Jena, R. Page, J. Casamento, P. Dang, J. Singhal, Z. Zhang, J. Wright, G. Khalsa, Y. Cho, and H. G. Xing
Significant Phonon Drag Enables High Power Factor in the AlGaN/GaN Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
A. S. Yalamarthy, M. Muñoz Rojo, A. Bruefach, D. Boone, K. M. Dowling, P. F. Satterthwaite, D. Goldhaber-Gordon, E. Pop, and D. G. Senesky
Bandgap narrowing and Mott transition in Si-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N
S. Bharadwaj, S. M. Islam, K. Nomoto, V. Protasenko, A. Chaney, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena
Broken Symmetry Effects due to Polarization on Resonant Tunneling Transport in Double-Barrier Nitride Heterostructures
J. Encomendero, V. Protasenko, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, P. Fay, F. Rana, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing
Rutile GeO2: An ultrawide-band-gap semiconductor with ambipolar doping
S. Chae, J. Lee, K. A. Mengle, J. T. Heron, and E. Kioupakis
New physics in GaN resonant tunneling diodes
G. Xing, J. Encomendero, and D. Jena
Gate-Recessed E-mode p-Channel HFET With High On-Current Based on GaN/AlN 2D Hole Gas
S. J. Bader, R. Chaudhuri, K. Nomoto, A. Hickman, Z. Chen, H. W. Then, D. A. Muller, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena
1230 V β-Ga2O3 trench Schottky barrier diodes with an ultra-low leakage current of <1 μA/cm2
W. Li, Z. Hu, K. Nomoto, Z. Zhang, J. Hsu, Q. T. Thieu, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing
Breakdown mechanism in 1 kA/cm2 and 960 V E-mode β-Ga2O3 vertical transistors
Z. Hu, K. Nomoto, W. Li, Z. Zhang, N. Tanen, Q. T. Thieu, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Nakamura, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing
Enhancement-Mode Ga2O3 Vertical Transistors With Breakdown Voltage >1 kV
Z. Hu, K. Nomoto, W. Li, N. Tanen, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, T. Nakamura, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing
Tuning Electrical and Thermal Transport in AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures via Buffer Layer Engineering
A. S. Yalamarthy, H. So, M. Muñoz Rojo, A. J. Suria, X. Xu, E. Pop, and D. G. Senesky
Room temperature microwave oscillations in GaN/AlN resonant tunneling diodes with peak current densities up to 220 kA/cm2
J. Encomendero, R. Yan, A. Verma, S. M. Islam, V. Protasenko, S. Rouvimov, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing
234 nm and 246 nm AlN-Delta-GaN quantum well deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes
C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, H. (. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang
Spatially Resolved Thermometry of Resistive Memory Devices
E. Yalon, S. Deshmukh, M. Muñoz Rojo, F. Lian, C. M. Neumann, F. Xiong, and E. Pop
New Tunneling Features in Polar III-Nitride Resonant Tunneling Diodes
J. Encomendero, F. A. Faria, S.  . Islam, V. Protasenko, S. Rouvimov, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, P. Fay, D. Jena, and H. G. Xing
Temperature-Dependent Thermal Boundary Conductance of Monolayer MoS2 by Raman Thermometry
E. Yalon, B. Aslan, K. K. H. Smithe, C. J. McClellan, S. V. Suryavanshi, F. Xiong, A. Sood, C. M. Neumann, X. Xu, K. E. Goodson, T. F. Heinz, and E. Pop
Deep-UV emission at 219 nm from ultrathin MBE GaN/AlN quantum heterostructures
S. M. Islam, V. Protasenko, K. Lee, S. Rouvimov, J. Verma, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena
Effect of oxygen vacancies and strain on the phonon spectrum of HfO2 thin films
L. Gao, E. Yalon, A. R. Chew, S. Deshmukh, A. Salleo, E. Pop, and A. A. Demkov
Energy Dissipation in Monolayer MoS2 Electronics
Physics and polarization characteristics of 298 nm AlN-delta-GaN quantum well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes
C. Liu, Y. K. Ooi, S. M. Islam, J. Verma, H. (. Xing, D. Jena, and J. Zhang
Inductively-coupled-plasma reactive ion etching of single-crystal β-Ga2O3
L. Zhang, A. Verma, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena
Strained GaN quantum-well FETs on single crystal bulk AlN substrates
M. Qi, G. Li, S. Ganguly, P. Zhao, X. Yan, J. Verma, B. Song, M. Zhu, K. Nomoto, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena
MBE-grown 232–270 nm deep-UV LEDs using monolayer thin binary GaN/AlN quantum heterostructures
S. M. Islam, K. Lee, J. Verma, V. Protasenko, S. Rouvimov, S. Bharadwaj, H. (Grace) Xing, and D. Jena
Deep ultraviolet emission from ultra-thin GaN/AlN heterostructures
D. Bayerl, S. Islam, C. M. Jones, V. Protasenko, D. Jena, and E. Kioupakis
Intrinsic electron mobility limits in β-Ga2O3
N. Ma, N. Tanen, A. Verma, Z. Guo, T. Luo, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena
First-principles calculations of the near-edge optical properties of β-Ga2O3
K. A. Mengle, G. Shi, D. Bayerl, and E. Kioupakis
High Current Density and Low Thermal Conductivity of Atomically Thin Semimetallic WTe2
M. J. Mleczko, R. L. Xu, K. Okabe, H. Kuo, I. R. Fisher, H. -. P. Wong, Y. Nishi, and E. Pop
Sub-230 nm deep-UV emission from GaN quantum disks in AlN grown by a modified Stranski–Krastanov mode
S. Islam, V. Protasenko, S. Rouvimov, H. (. Xing, and D. Jena

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Research Highlights

Extreme Quantum Confinement Heterostructures
D. Bayerl, S. Islam, C. M. Jones, V. Protasenko, D. Jena, and E. Kioupakis